Как защитить голубей от токсичных кормов

Основными токсическими веществами кормов, от которых заболевают и гибнут голуби, в настоящее время, являются микотоксины – продукты жизнедеятельности микроскопических грибов, а не химикаты, как думают в основном голубеводы. Микроскопические грибы, которые в основном не видны не вооруженным глазом, развиваются на зерновых при определенных условиях во время вегетации (выращивания) и хранения.

Основными факторами, способствующими поражению зерна микроскопическими грибами, является выращивание его с нарушениями аграрной технологии. Обостряется эта проблема в дождливые годы, как во время вегетации, так и во время уборки. Следующим неблагоприятным моментом является закладка его на хранение с повышенной влажностью (более 14%), (для проса более 12-13%) в хранилища, не оборудованные соответствующим образом. Как показывает практика голубеводы, к сожалению, в основном закупают зерно на птичьем рынке или у мелких фермеров, без документов, подтверждающих его качества по показателям безопасности. На птичий рынок зерно поступает от тех же мелких фермеров или частных лиц, получивших зерно на паи или выращенное на собственном участке (горох, фасоль, кукуруза). Во всех этих случаях у поставщиков зерна нет надлежащих технологий выращивания и хранения. У этих производителей обычно нет систем досушивания зерна после уборки и вся надежда только на благоприятные природно-климатические условия. Зачастую нет надлежащих условий для хранения зерна и у самих голубеводов и закупив с осени даже великолепное зерно, к середине зимы оно становится не пригодным для скармливания.

Как показывает практика, у голубеводов наиболее часто зерно поражается микотоксинами, хранящееся в металлических или пластмассовых бочках в не обогреваемых помещениях. Это объясняется тем, что на стенках этих бочек при резком перепаде температуры в окружающей среде в осеннее — весенний период, образуется конденсат, из-за чего повышается влажность зерна, на котором развиваются микроскопические грибы, которые и вырабатывают микотоксины приводящие к отравлению птицы. Несмотря на то, что в основном грибы продуцируют микотоксины в теплых и влажных условиях, некоторые виды Penicillium могут вырабатывать охратоксины при более низких температурах — уже при температуре 5о С.

Наибольшую опасность для птиц, животных и людей представляют токсины грибов, относящиеся к двум группам. Первая – так называемые складские грибы из рода аспергилиус (Aspergillus) и пенициллиум (Penicillium). Эти грибы обсеменяют зерновые в период уборки, а затем, особенно при нарушении технологии хранения, интенсивно размножаются в массе корма. Грибы из родов аспергилиус и пенициллиум обнаруживаются, если зерновые были убраны с высоким содержанием влаги и недостаточно просушены или подверглись увлажнению при хранении. Среди многих токсинов, вырабатываемых этими грибами, наиболее часто встречаются охратоксин А и афлатоксин. В нашей стране наиболее часто встречается охратоксин. Охратоксин обнаруживают в зерне пшеницы, ячменя, овса, кукурузы и комбикорме. Все микотоксины, в том числе и охратоксин нарушают пищеварение и ослабляют иммунную систему организма за счет угнетения функции тимуса и фабрициевой сумки. Охратоксины или как их еще называют, нефротоксины, основное влияние оказывают на почки, нарушая водно-солевой баланс в организме. При воздействии охратоксина на птицу подавляется синтез белка, нарушается функция почек, увеличивается потребность в воде и снижается в кормах, наступает диарея. Каловые массы становятся жидкими, зачастую водянистыми с повышенным содержанием мочекислых солей белого цвета. У птицы наступает депрессия, голуби сидят, нахохлившись (крылья опущены, глаза закрыты), наблюдается обезвоживание организма, задержка роста и исхудание. По мере развития болезни связанной с усилением интоксикации организма мочевиной, из-за воспалительных процессов в почках у голубей наблюдается атоксия, мышечные судороги, потеря рефлексов, выпрямление туловища, тремор ног и мышц шеи, прострация. При вскрытии павшей или больной птицы основные изменения отмечаются в почках. Почки увеличены в размере, воспалены, наблюдается так называемое «выпячивание» из межреберных пространств. При длительном воздействии охратоксина поражается и печень.

Второй микотоксин складских грибов это афлатоксин, он является сильным канцерогеном и накапливается в организме птиц. Острые формы поражения у птиц характеризуются развитием некрозов печени и пролиферацией эпителия желчных протоков, поражением нервной системы и лимфоидной ткани, подкожными кровоизлияниями.

Грибы из рода аспергилиус кроме микотоксического действия могут вызывать самостоятельное заболевание – аспергиллез, при котором в основном поражаются органы дыхания.

Вторая группа грибов — это полевые грибы, из которых для птиц наиболее опасны грибы из рода фузарий (Fusarium). Они поражают растения в период вегетации, при неблагоприятных условиях хранения кормов способны к дальнейшему развитию. В нашей стране наиболее часто встречаются микотоксины – ДОН или вомитоксин, Т-2 токсин, зеараленон. В настоящее время у нас, как и во всем мире отмечается нарастающая динамика поражения зерновых культур фузариозом, а зерновых продуктов соответствующими ему микотоксинами (Т-2 токсин, ДОН, зеараленон).

Наиболее характерными признаками при отравлении зеараленоном являются нарушения воспроизводительной функции (особенно снижение оплодотворяемости), нарушение метаболизма витаминов, конвульсии (судороги, спастические контрактуры конечностей) и гангренозное отторжение конечностей (в местах суставных сочленений). При отравлении микотоксином Т-2 отмечается снижение потребления корма, рвота, раздражение кожи и слизистой ЖКТ, поражение нервных клеток, поражение плода (эмбриона), повышение восприимчивости к болезням, кровотечения, некротические энтериты. Характерны воспаления и некроз слизистой оболочки ротовой полости, чаще кончика языка и неба, а также зоба. Первоначально появляются сухие, желтые пятна, величиной 2-3 мм, которые затем расширяются, углубляются и превращаются в некротические очаги. Развивается фибринозно-дифтеритическое воспаление слизистой оболочки языка и неба. Птица вытягивает шею, в зобе наблюдается скопление корма его гниение и из-за этого выделение гнилостного зловонного запаха изо рта.

Не смотря на разнообразие клинических признаков при микотоксикозах некоторые характерные признаки этой патологии все же можно выделить: во первых это снижение потребления корма, расстройство пищеварения (диарея, рвота, нарушение перистальтики желудочно-кишечного тракта, проявляющееся скоплением кормовых масс в зобе, их гнием и выделением зловонного запаха изо рта птицы), взъерошенность оперения, нарушения координации движения, снижение воспроизводительных качеств, отсутствие эффекта от лечения желудочно-кишечных расстройств антибиотиками.

При отравлении микотоксинами необходимо учитывать то, что обычно птица поражается не одновременно вся. Микотоксины накапливаются постепенно, заболевает и гибнет в первую очередь птица молодая с высокой интенсивностью роста и развития. И чем выше продуктивность птицы, чем интенсивнее протекают в ее организме обменные процессы (летная птица, племенной сезон и т.д.), тем сильнее сказывается на нее присутствие в корме микотоксинов.

Выявить зерно пораженное микотоксинами, без специальных лабораторных исследований невозможно. Вместе с тем мы дадим несколько советов по выявлению недоброкачественного зерна, в том числе и пораженного микотоксинами, на основе органолептических исследований. 

Внешний вид зерна характеризует его свежесть. Свежее зерно имеет гладкую поверхность, естественные для каждой культуры блеск и цвет. Зерно, подвергнутое порче, имеет тусклый цвет оболочки, темную гладкую поверхность. После самосогревания на зерне обнаруживают черные, красно-бурые оттенки, выявляют и плесневые зерна.

Для определения цвета, зерно рассыпают в один слой на белой бумаге и рассматривают при рассеянном свете. С помощью лупы или увеличительного стекла с 3-5 кратным увеличением просматривают подозрительное зерно, в особенности по шву, отставшей шелухе. Наличие черных пятен свидетельствует о поражении зерна грибковыми возбудителями.

Запах у хорошего зерна ароматный без посторонних примесей, специфический для конкретного вида зерна. Определяют запах зерна при нагревании — в ладонях 100 г зерна, или в стакане, залив горячей (60-70° С) водой на 2-3 мин. У дефектного зерна I степени порчи запах солодовый и кислый, II степени — плесневело-затхлый, III — плесневело-гнилостный, и IV- запах аммиака.

Для определения вкуса 100 г зерна размалывают или толкут, отбирают 2 г и разжевывают. Сладкий вкус – зерно проросшее, а кислый свидетельствует о развитии в зерне грибов.

Битые, мелкие, щуплые зерна, как и оболочка зерна, пыль, семена сорных трав, связывают и удерживают больше влаги, чем здоровое зерно, что естественно приводит к развитию грибов продуцирующих микотоксины. Вот почему не рекомендуем использовать для корма голубей зерноотходы. Если использовать, то в незначительном количестве сразу же после уборки — осенью, т.е. не подвергшиеся хранению.

Быстро портится дробленое зерно, особенно зерно кукурузы, которое является хорошей питательной средой для грибов, поэтому не рекомендуем покупать дробленое зерно с неизвестным сроком его хранения в дробленом виде. При этом нужно иметь в виду, что некоторые продавцы зерна, для того чтобы скрыть явную порчу зерна, его дробят. Зерно лучше дробить в домашних условиях непосредственно перед скармливанием, благо в настоящее время для этого есть все условия, в продаже имеются дробилки различной мощности и позволяющие получать дробину с различной величиной помола. Дробленое зерно должно храниться в сухом помещении не более одной недели.

Зерно, пораженное насекомыми вредителями так же на 100% поражено микотоксинами.

Для успешного хранения зерна необходимы следующие условия:

1. Очистка зерна перед закладкой на хранение (провеивание).

2. Низкая влажность. В настоящее время доказано, что при влажности зерна 12-14% и температуре 20-30°С оно хранится длительное время без порчи.

3. Хранилища (емкости), не должны пропускать влагу и не способствовать образованию конденсата на стенках.

4. Желательна герметизация емкости с зерном.

В хранящихся кормах преобладают грибы-аэробы. В свежезаложенном зерне воздух (кислород) в межзерновых пространствах ещё есть, но при дальнейшем хранении (при ограничении доступа воздуха) количество кислорода сокращается, накапливается углекислый газ, подавляющий развитие микро — и макрофлоры. Такая герметизация достигается полной загрузкой емкостей зерном и незначительным пространством над ним. Обнаружив самосогревание, необходимо хорошо проветривать и просушивать зерно.

Основным способом профилактики отравлений птицы микотоксинами, несомненно, является не допущение к скармливанию кормов пораженных микотоксинами.   В том случае если вы не уверены в качестве используемого вами зерна, или оно имеет явные признаки порчи, мы рекомендуем использовать кормовую добавку Фунгисорб.

Как видно из таблицы, Фунгисорб — это довольно сложный, современный уникальный препарат, позволяющий связывать и выводить из желудочно-кишечного тракта птицы микотоксины корма, патогенные бактерии (сальмонеллу, кишечную палочку, стрептококки и т.д.), нормализовать микрофлору желудочно-кишечного тракта, повышать иммунитет птицы, предотвращать развитие плесневых грибов в корме и желудочно-кишечном тракте птицы, улучшать переваримость и усвояемость корма. По оценкам голубеводов действие Фунгисорба, при расстройстве желудочно-кишечного тракта у птицы, наступает моментально. Высокий профилактический эффект оценили мы лично, а также другие голубеводы. При постоянном введении его в корм у птицы не наблюдаются желудочно-кишечные расстройства, хорошо перевариваются и усваиваются корма, при хорошем общем состоянии птицы. При этом обращаем ваше внимание, что препарат не содержит антибиотиков и не оказывает побочного эффекта, его можно задавать постоянно, не боясь передозировки. Фунгисорб задается птице путем смешивания с кормом, без предварительного смачивания, в среднем в дозе 2 гр./кг, затраты составляют в пределах 1 рубля на 1 кг обработанного корма.

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